A report on vegetation types, species diversity, and distribution of Monduli mountains forest reserve in Monduli district, northern highlands of Tanzania

Authors

  • Canisius John Kayombo Forestry Training Institute-Olmotonyi, P. O. Box 943, Arusha-Tanzania TFSA Monduli District, Box 1, Monduli-Tanzania & Nationational Herbarium of Tanzania (NHT), P.O.Box 943, Arusha-Tanzania
  • Godlisten Eden Koka TFSA Monduli District, P. O. Box 1, Monduli-Tanzania
  • Gabriel Mwigune National Herbarium of Tanzania, P. O. Box 943, Arusha-Tanzania
  • Victor Sylvester Kaaya Forestry Training InstituP.te-Olmotonyi, P. O. Box 943, Arusha-Tanzania

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.6840728

Keywords:

Diversity, Northern Highlands of Tanzania, Plant Species richness, Threats

Abstract

The forest reserves are well managed when the available resources are known for their richness, diversity, abundance, distribution, and the encountered threats. This survey dealt with an assessment of threats endangering the plant species of Monduli Mountain Forest Reserve (MMFR) in Monduli District, northern highlands of Tanzania. Six (6) clusters of 10 plots measuring 20 m x 20 m each were established in MMFR making a total of 60 sample plots. The 20m x 20 m plots were established to determine the trees. Nested plots of 2 m x 5 m were established to determine the non-tree woody plants, and 1 m x 1 m quadrates were established to determine the herbaceous plants. Trees and non-tree woody plants were identified and counted for their number of individuals, while the herbaceous plants were determined for their number of occurrences in the sample plots. Threats endangering the plant species richness, diversity, and distribution of herbaceous plants were identified. The identified vegetation types were: (i) bushland (ii) montane forest (iii) dry riverine forest (iv) bamboo forest, (v) Plantation Forest pat, and (vi) wooded grassland. The plant species richness (S) was 308. Of those 144 were herbaceous plants, 84were trees, and 80 were non-tree woody plants. The calculated H' for trees and non-tree woody plants was>1.5 an implication of high diversity for such growth forms. Out of the 144 herbaceous plants, nine (9) of them were the most distributed, with an RF of 4.202 ± 2.521. 13 were moderately distributed with the RF of 2.353 ± 1.345, while the rest 122 species got an RF of < 1.345. This implied that most of the herbaceous plants were the least distributed in MMFR and hence were at risk of local extinction in case of any severe damage wherever they exist. The identified threats of MMFR were livestock grazing, encroachment on agriculture crop farming, harvesting bamboos, logging for local honey bee hives, snaring for wild meat, wildfires firewood collection, and invasive plants including Datura stramonium, Nicotiana glauca, Senna didymobotrya and Caesalpinia decapetala MMFR is potential in terms of natural resources including flora on the valleys, spurs, mountains peaks and slopes. The vegetation types serve as homes for wildlife diversity. The most abundant and most distributed plants are more guaranteed of survival than the least abundant. The threats to plants are mostly man-made, that need to be controlled by conservation stakeholders. Education provision, restoration of degraded areas, and upgrading to a nature reserve is a panacea to sustainable conservation of MMFR.

References

Al-Aklabi, A., Al-Khulaidi, A.W., Hussein, A., ^ Al-sagheer, N. 2016. Main vegetation types and plant species diversity along an altitudinal gradient of Al Baha region, Saudi Arabia.Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences, 23(6), 687-697.

Andiego, K. P., Dangasuk, O. G., Odee, D. W., Omondi, F. S., Otieno, D. F., & Balozi, B. K. (2019). Genetic diversity of endangered sandalwood (Osyris lanceolata) populations in Kenya using ISSR molecular markers. East African Agricultural and Forestry Journal, 83(2), 80-93.

Beentje, H., Adamson, J., & Bhanderi, D. (1994). Kenya trees, shrubs, and lianas. National Museums of Kenya.

Chen, G. X., Yu, K. W., Liao, L. P., & Xu, G. S. (2000). Effect of human activities on forest ecosystems: N cycle and soil fertility. Nutrient Cycling in Agroecosystems, 57(1), 47-54.

Colville, J. F., Beale, C. M., Forest, F., Altwegg, R., Huntley, B., & Cowling, R. M. (2020). Plant richness, turnover, and evolutionary diversity track gradients of stability and ecological opportunity in a megadiversity center. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 117(33), 20027-20037. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1915646117.

Ducarme, F., Flipo, F., & Couvet, D. (2021). How the diversity of human concepts of nature affects conservation of biodiversity. Conservation Biology, 35(3), 1019-1028. https://doi.org/10.1111/cobi.13639

FAO.(2000). Forest plantations. Global Forest Resources Assessment. FRA. Global Forest Resources Assessment/Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (fao.org).

Gatti, R. C., Reich, P. B., Gamarra, J.G.P. & Lianey, J. (2022). The number of Trees on Earth. PNAS. 119 (6) e2115329119. http://.doi.org.10.1073/pnas.2115329119

Gereta, E.J. 2010. The role of biodiversity conservation in the development of the tourism Industry in Tanzania. Conservation of Natural Resources. Some Affairs & Asian Examples. Tapir Academic Press, Trondheim, Norway.

GTZ. (2007). Eastern Africa Resource Base: GTZ Online Regional Energy Resource Base. Regional and Country Specific Energy Resource Database: II - Energy Resource.

Guertin, C. É. (2003). Illegal logging and illegal activities in the forestry sector: Overview and possible issues for the UNECE Timber Committee and FAO European Forestry Commission. Quebec Wood Export Bureau.http://unece.org/fileadmin//DAM/timber/docs

/tc-sessions/tc-61/presentations/guertin-paper.pdf.

Harris, J. G., & Harris, M. W. (1994). Plant identification terminology: An illustrated glossary (No. QK9 H37 2001). Utah: Spring Lake Publishing.

Jia, X., Shao, M., & Wei, X. (2011). Richness and composition of herbaceous species in restored shrubland and grassland ecosystems in the northern Loess Plateau of China. Biodiversity and Conservation, 20(14), 3435-3452.

Jones, N. (2021). Bradfield Avenue, BRIDGEND, Mid-Glam CF31 4HL, United Kingdom

Jorgensen, N., & Renz, M. (2021). Assessing the performance and accuracy of invasive plant habitat suitability models in detecting new observations in Wisconsin. Invasive Plant Science and Management, 1-9.

Kent, M., & Coker, P. 1992. Vegetation Description and Analysis: A Practical Approach (pp. 167-169). New York: John Wiley and Sons.

Kricher, J. C. (1998). A field guide to Eastern forests, North America (Vol. 37). Houghton Mifflin Harcourt.

Langmaier, M., & Lapin, K. (2020). A systematic review of the impact of invasive alien plants on forest regeneration in European temperate forests. Frontiers in Plant Science, 1349.https://doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2020.524969.

Mohr, D.L., Wilson, W.J. & Freud, R.J. (2021). Statistics Methods. Fourth Edition, 747-754 pg.

Ndangalasi, H. J., Bitariho, R., & Dovie, D. B. (2007). Harvesting of non-timber forest products and implications for conservation in two montane forests of East Africa. Biological Conservation, 134(2), 242-250.

Petersen, H., Jack, S. L., Hoffman, M. T., & Todd, S. W. (2020). Patterns of plant species richness and growth form diversity in critical habitats of the Nama-Karoo Biome, South Africa. South African Journal of Botany, 135, 201-211.

Rai, P. K., & Singh, J. S. (2020). Invasive alien plant species: Their impact on environment, ecosystem services and human health. Ecological indicators, 111, 106020. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecolind. 2019.106020.

Reichert, B. L., Jean-Philippe, S. R., Oswalt, C., Franklin, J., & Radosevich, M. (2015). Woody vegetation and soil characteristics of residential forest patches and open spaces along an urban-to-rural gradient. Open Journal of Forestry, 5(01), 90-104.

Ricklefs, R. E., & Bermingham, E. (2002). The concept of the taxon cycle in biogeography. Global Ecology and Biogeography, 11(5), 353-361.https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1466-822x.2002.00300.x.

Ringold, P. L., Magee, T. K., & Peck, D. V. (2008). Twelve invasive plant taxa in US western riparian ecosystems. Journal of the North American Benthological Society, 27(4), 949-966.

Ruffo, K. C., Birnie, A., & Tengnas, B.O. (2002). Edible wild plants of Tanzania. Regional Land Management Unit (RELMA). Technical Handbook No. 27.

Ruiz-Jaén, M. C., & Aide, T. M. (2005). Vegetation structure, species diversity, and ecosystem processes as measures of restoration success. Forest Ecology and Management, 218(1-3), 159-173.

Sosef, M.S.M., Gereau, R.E., Luke, W.R.Q., Ntore, S., Simo-Droissart, M., Stevart, T., & Tack, W. (2021). Red List of the endemic and sub endemic trees of Centre Africa. Democratic epublic of Congo-Rwanda-Burundi.

Stohlgren, T. J., Falkner, M. B., & Schell, L. D. (1995). A modified-Whittaker nested vegetation sampling method. Vegetatio, 117(2), 113-121.

Thom, D., & Seidl, R. (2016). Natural disturbance impacts on ecosystem services and biodiversity in temperate and boreal forests. Biological Reviews, 91(3), 760-781.

URT. (2016). Revised management plan for Monduli Forest Reserve. Monduli District, Arusha Region. Ministry of Natural Resources and Tourism, Tanzania Forest Service Agency (TFS), Tanzania.

Vila-Ruiz, C. P., Meléndez-Ackerman, E., Santiago-Bartolomei, R., Garcia-Montiel, D., Lastra, L., Figuerola, C. E., & Fumero-Caban, J. (2014). Plant species richness and abundance in residential yards across a tropical watershed: implications for urban sustainability. Ecology and Society, 19(3). http://dx.doi.org/10/10.5751/ES-06164-190322

White, T. A., Barker, D. J., & Moore, K. J. (2004). Vegetation diversity, growth, quality and decomposition in managed grasslands. Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment, 101(1), 73-84.

Wilson, J. B., Peet, R. K., Dengler, J., & Pärtel, M. (2012). Plant species richness: the world records. Journal of vegetation Science, 23(4), 796-802.https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1654-1103.2012.01400.x.

Wubetu, M., Abula, T., & Dejenu, G. (2017). Ethnopharmacologic survey of medicinal plants used to treat human diseases by traditional medical practitioners in Dega Damot district, Amhara, Northwestern Ethiopia. BMC research notes, 10 (1), 1-13.https://doi.org/10.1186/s13104-017-2482-3.

Downloads

Published

2022-07-17

How to Cite

Kayombo, C. J., Koka, G. E. ., Mwigune, G. ., & Kaaya, V. S. . (2022). A report on vegetation types, species diversity, and distribution of Monduli mountains forest reserve in Monduli district, northern highlands of Tanzania. Scientific Reports in Life Sciences, 3(2), 15–31. https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.6840728