Causes and Consequences of Deforestation in Essera District, Dawro Zone South-Western Ethiopia
Keywords:Deforestation, degradation, Essera, forest
Deforestation is disturbing the strength and distribution of forests. The study was conducted to identify the causes of deforestation and its consequences on communities of Essera district. The cross-sectional survey design with the application of both qualitative and quantitative approaches was employed. A multistage sampling design was applied, which means combining different approaches like purposive, stratified, and simple random sampling procedures to select the study area and sample households. The result was obtained from both secondary and primary sources of data focusing on both qualitative and quantitative natures. A huge amount (48) 80% of respondents prepare the land by slash and burn, 13.33% or 8 of the respondents prepare the land by ecological farming whereas 4 of the respondents prepare the land by tillage. The farming ways usually affect the size of the land on which one undertakes his or her activities. Firewood collection was the major destructive activity, because, the local people depend on the natural forest as a source of fuel energy for household consumption and sale. In addition, the discussants bitterly objected to the destined robbery of the forest timber products as destructive activity. Some farmers organized at the micro level to acquire lands for the cultivation of cash crops such as chat, sesame, and eucalyptus trees. Firewood collection and preparation of land by burning contributes highly to deforestation. Integrated activities like financial support for scientific aid and serious planning data to state and local governments from agencies responsible for climate, weather, and risk mitigation are recommended.
Adams, W.M. (2009) Green Development: Environment and Sustainability in the Third World, 3rd Edition, Routledge, London and New York
The Asante Akim North Municipal Assembly (2006) Draft Strategic Environmental Report for the District Medium Term Development Plan under the Ghana Shared Growth and Development Agenda 2010-2013, pp. 9-68
Bardhan, K. and S. Klasen (1999): UNDP's Gender-Related Indices: A Critical Review. World Development Vol. 27, No. 6, pp. 985-1010.
Bergman, E. F. and Renwick, W. H. (1999) Introduction to Geography: People, Places and Environment, Prentice Hall, Inc., pp. 150, 353 and 355.
Beyene, K.K. (2011) Soil Erosion, Deforestation and Rural Livelihoods in the central Rift Valley Area of Ethiopia: A Case Study of the Denku Micro-Watershed Oromia Region, published Master’s thesis, June 2011, University of South Africa, pp. 13-14, retrieved on 30th October, 2012 from https://uir.unisa.ac.za/bitstream/handle/.../dissertation_beyene_kk.pdf
Boddy, D. (2011) Management: An Introduction, 5th edition, Pearson Education Limited, England, p.6.
Bond, A. (2006) “Your Master’s Thesis” Studymates Ltd, United Kingdom, p 22
Bryman, A. (2008) Social Research Methods, 3rd edition, Oxford University Press Inc., New York
Carle, J. and Holmgren, P. (2000) “Definitions Related to Planted Forests”, in Forest Resources Development Service, FAO of United Nations, Viale Delle Terme di Caracalla, I-00100 Rome, Italy, pp 2-3 and 9. 118
Chakrabarti, P.G.D. (2005): Mainstreaming Gender in Disaster Risk Reduction, Workshop on National Mechanisms, Global Platform for DRR. Geneva, 6th June 2007 (ppt)
Chomitz, K. M (1999) Environment-Poverty Connections in Tropical Deforestation: Discussion notes prepared for Summer Workshop July 7 1999, WDR on Poverty and Development 2000/01, Stiglitz Summer Research Workshop on Poverty, Washington Dc, pp. 1-5
De-Miranda, R. C., Sepp, S., Ceccon, E., Mann, S. and Singh, B. (2010), “Sustainable Production of Commercial Wood fuel: Lessons and Guidance from Two Strategies” in Energy Sector Management Assistance Program (ESMAP, 2010), pp. 2 and 31.
Domson, O. and Vlosky, R.P. (2007) A Strategic Overview of the Forest Sector in Ghana, Louisiana Forest Products Development Center, Working Paper #81, Baton Rouge,
Evans, P., (1996) “Government Action, Social Capital and Development: Reviewing the Evidence on Synergy”, World Development, Vol. 24, No. 6, pp. 1119-1132.
Food and Agriculture Organization (2002) Global Forest Resources Assessment 2000 – Main Report, FAO Forestry Paper (140), Rome, retrieved on 8th August, 2011, from: http://www.fao.org/forestry/fra2000report
Food and Agriculture Organization (2003) Forestry Outlook Study for Africa – African Forests: A View to 2020, African Development Bank, European Commission and the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome, 18, retrieved on 8th August, 2011, from.
Food and Agriculture Organization (2005) State of the World’s Forests 2005, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome, available at http://ftp.fao.org/docrep/fao/007/y5574e/y5574e00.pdf 119
Food and Agriculture Organization (2010), “Criteria and Indicators for Sustainable wood fuels”, in FAO Forestry, Paper 160, Electronic Publishing Policy and Support Branch, Viale Delle Terme di Caracalla, I-00100 Rome, Italy, pp. 5, 10 and 11
Forestry Commission (1998) Timber Resources Management Regulations, 1998, LI 1649, available at
Forestry Commission, Ghana (2008) National Forest Plantation Development Programme (NFPDP): Annual Report 2008. Available at http://126.96.36.199/assets/file/Publications/Forestry_Issues/
Forestry Commission, Ghana (2011) National Forest Plantation Development Programme Annual Report, 2011, pp. 1- 21
Gabler, R. E., Petersen, J. F. and Trapasso L. M. (2007) Essentials of Physical Geography, eighth edition, Thomson Brooks, Belmont, CA 94002-3098, USA, pp. 240.
Gadzekpo, A. and Waldman, L. (2005) “I have heard about it, but have never seen it”: Environmental Considerations in the Ghana Poverty Reduction Strategy, January 2005, the Poverty and Environment Partnership (PEP), p.1
Getis, A., Getis, J. and Fellmann, J. D. (2005) Human Geography: Landscape of Human Activities, McGraw-Hill, New York NY 10020, pp. 301 and 498.
Ghana Statistical Service (2008) Ghana Living Standards Survey: Report of the Fifth Round (GLSS 5), GSS, Available online at http://www.statsghana.gov.gh/docfiles/glss5_report.pdf
Gomez, B. and Jones, P.J. (2010) Research methods in Geography, John Wiley & Sons Ltd, pp. 10-13.
Gorte, R.W and Sheikh, P. A (2010) Deforestation and Climate Change, Congressional Research Service, March 24, 2010. Retrieved on 23rd March, 2012, from http://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/misc/R41144.pdf 120
Haggett, P. (2001), Geography: A Global Synthesis; Pearson Education Limited, Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458, pp. 321 and 349.
International Institute for Sustainable Development (1996) Countdown Forests 97: A briefing series of the International Institute of Sustainable Development, available at: http://iisd1.iisd.ca/forests/countdown/
Insaidoo, T. F.G., Ros-Tonen, M. A.F., Hoogenbosch, L. and Acheampong, E. (2012) Addressing Forest Degradation and Timber Deficits in Ghana, ETFRN News 53: April 2012,
International Tropical Timber Organization (2011) Revised ITTO guidelines for the sustainable management of natural tropical forests, International Tropical Timber Council committee on reforestation and forest management, ITTO paper, p.8, available at: http://www.itto.int/direct/topics/topics_pdf_download/topics_id=2783&no=0
Kasanga (2002) Current Land Policy Issues in Ghana, Land Reform 2003 (3) Special Edition, pp. 41-54, available at: http://www.fao.org/docrep/006/y5026e/y5026e0a.htm
Keller, E. A. (2005) Introduction to Environmental Geology, published by Pearson Education, Inc, Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458, pp. 452.
Kerr, S., Pfaff, A.S.P., Cavatassi, R., Davis, B., Lipper, L., Sanchez, A. and Timmins, J. (2004) “Chapter 6” Effects of Poverty on Deforestation: Distinguishing behaviour from location, ESA Working Paper No. 04-19, November 2004, Agricultural and Development Economics Division, FAO, UN
Knox, P. L. and Marston, S. A. (1998), Places and Regions in Global context: Human Geography, Prentice-Hall Inc, Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458, pp. 174 and 175.
Manfre, C. and Rubin, D. (2012) Integrating Gender into Forestry Research: A Guide for CIFOR Scientists and Programme Administrators, Center for International Forest Research, Bogor, Indonesia 121
Mahapatra, K. and Kant, S. (2003) Tropical Deforestation: A Multinomial Logistic Model and some Country-specific Policy Prescriptions, Journal of Forest Policy and Economics 7 (2005), Elsevier, pp.1-8
Mayers, J. and Vermeulen, S. (2002) Power from the Trees: How Good Forest Governance can Help Reduce Poverty, International Institute of Environment and Development, UK, 1-5, retrieved on 6th June, 2011, from: http://www.pubs.iied.org/pdfs/11027IIED.pdf
McCarthy, J. (2009) Reflections On: Our Planet and Its Life, Origins, and Futures, Science, available at: http://www.sciencemag.org/content/326/5960/1646.short
Miller, Jr. G. T. (1998), Living in the Environment: Principles, Connections, and Solution, tenth edition; Wadsworth Publishing Company, USA, pp. 11.
Oksanen, T., Pajari, B. and Tuomasjukka, T. (2003) Executive Sumary; in Oksanen, T., Pajari, B. and Tuomasjukka, T. (eds), Forest in Poverty Reduction Strategies: Caputring the Potential, EFI Proceedings No. 47, 2003, European Forest Institute, pp.9-11, retrieved on 30th October, 2012 from https://www.efi.int/files/attachments/publications/proc47_net.pdf
Owusu, B., Nketiah, K. S and Aggrey, J. (2011) “Combating Unacceptable Forest Practices in Ghana”, Tropenbos International Ghana, Policy brief, September 2011, pp. 1- 20.
Pfaff, A., Kerr, S., Cavatassi, R., Davis, B., Sanchez, A. and Timmins, J. (2008) “Chapter 6” Effects of Poverty on Deforestation: Distinguishing behaviour from location, in Dellink, R.B and Ruijs, A (eds.), Economics of Poverty, Environment and Natural Resource Use, 101-115, Springer.
Purnomo, H. (2003) A Modeling Approach to Collaborative Forest Management, available at: http://repository.ipb.ac.id/handle/123456789/42524 122.
Rist, G., (1997) The History of Development: from Western origins to Global Faith, Zed Books, London, Introduction and chapters 1-4
Secretariat of the Convention on Biological Diversity (2009) Sustainable Forest Management, Biodiversity and Livelihoods: A Good Practice Guide, Montreal, 47 + iii pages. Retrieved on 23rd March, 2012, from http://www.cbd.int/.../cbd-good-practice-guide-forestry-booklet-web-en.pd.
Stork, N.E., Boyle, T.J.B., Dale, V., Eeley, H., Finegan, B., Lawes, M., Manokaran N., Prabhu, R., and Soberon, J. (1997) Criteria and Indicators for Assessing the Sustainability of Forest Management: Conservation of Biodiversity, CIFOR, working paper No. 17, August, 1997, pp. 3-5
Tadesse, E., Ameck, G., Christensen, C., Masiko, P., Matlhakola, M. and Shilaho, W. (2006) The People shall Govern: A Research Report on Public Participation in Policy Process, Centre for the Study of Violence and Reconciliation (CSVR) Action for Conflict Transformation (ACTION) February 2006, Johannesburg, South Africa, p.7.
Tamakloe, W. (n.d) State of Ghana’s Environment: Challenges of Compliance and Enforcement, Ghana Environmental Protection Agency
TEEB (2010) The Economics of Ecosystems and Biodiversity: Mainstreaming the Economics of Nature: A synthesis of the approach, conclusions and recommendations of TEEB, available at: http://www.teebweb.org/LinkClick.aspx?fileticket=bYhDohL_TuM%3d&tabid=1278&mid=2357
Tropenbos International Ghana (2010) Timber legality, local livelihoods and social safeguards: implications of FLEGT/VPA in Ghana, Proceedings of an international workshop held in Accra, Ghana on 8th and 9th October 2009, Tropenbos International Ghana, Kumasi, Ghana, pp. 1.5. 123
United Nations Environmental Programme (UNEP, 2006) Africa Environmental Outlook 2: Our Environment, Or Wealth, retrieved on 26th November, 2012 from http://www.unep.org/DEWA/Africa/docs/en/AEO2_Our_Environ_Our_Wealth.pdf
UN, (1992), Agenda 21, http://www.un.org/esa/dsd/agenda21/res_agenda21_00.shtml
Wardell, D. A. (2002) Moving the Boundaries of Forest and Land Use History: The Case of Upper East Region in Northern Ghana, In Gausset, Q., Whyte, M.A., and Birch-Thomsen, T. (eds), Beyond Territory and Scarcity: Exploring Conflict over Natural Resource Management, Nordiska Afrikanstitutet, Copenhagen, pp.168- 189.
Waugh, D. (2005) Geography an Integrated Approach, Thomas Nelson and Sons Ltd, UK, p.289
United States Department for Agriculture (2000), Sustainable Forest Management: The Role of the USDA Forest Service, Northeastern Area and State Forestry Agencies, pp. 3.
UNDP (2003) Millennium Development Goals- National Reports: A look through a Gender Lens New York, USA. Retrieved on 12th April, 2011 from http://www.undp.org/women/docs/mdgs-genderlens.pdf
Zwane, A.P (2002) Does poverty constrain deforestation? Econometric evidence from Peru, Center for International Development, Harvard University, p.1
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2022 Scientific Reports in Life Sciences
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.